i1

i1, v.part. Retrospective in force, usually translatable by an English past or perfect tense, or sometimes (esp. with statives) by a simple present.

1. In clause initial position, often in association with ana2 after the verb.

I kite au iāia i te pō Varaire.
I saw him on Friday night;

I a‘a ana rātou?
What have (or had) they been doing?

2. When the clause does not commence with the verb, i is normally used instead of kua (perfective aspect marker):

(a) after kāre ‘not‘:

Kāre rātou i kai i te ‘akari.
They didn’t eat the coconut
(cf. Kua kai rātou i te ‘akari.
They ate the coconut);

Kāre au i pongi.
I‘m not hungry, I haven’t got hungry
(cf. Kua pongi au.
I‘m hungry, I’ve got hungry);

(b) after


+ agent:

Nā te tamaiti i ‘āngai i te puaka.
The boy fed the pigs
(cf. Kua ‘āngai te tamaiti i te puaka.
The boy fed the pigs);

(c) in relative clauses:

‘E mōtokā tāna i ‘inangaro.
It was a car that he wanted
(cf. Kua ‘inangaro ‘aia i tēta‘i mōtokā.
He wanted a car);

(d) when an adverbial of time, place or reason stands before the verb:

Nō reira tika ai te mata‘iapo i ‘uipā ei inapō.
That must be why the chiefs met last night.
(See tei2; cf. e1.)

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