mua

mua,

1. loc.n. Front, ahead, before.

(a) Referring to place. Ā mua, the front.

Tēia ā mua i te ‘are.
This is the front of the house;

‘E pēni koe i ā mua i te ‘are.
Paint the front of the house. I mua, at the front.

Tōna au ni‘o i mua,
his front teeth;

E no‘o kōrua ki te pā i mua, kā no‘o au ki te pā i muri.
You sit in the row in front, I‘ll sit in the row behind. Ki mua, to the front.

E ‘ākara koe ki mua.
Look ahead;

E kave koe i te pi‘a ki mua.
Take the box out in front;

Kua tū ‘aia ki mua ake iāku.
He stood in front of me (forward of me);

E ‘aere koe ki mua atu.
Go further forward. Nā mua, along in front, on ahead.

E ‘aere koe nā mua, ka nā muri atu au.
You go ahead, I‘ll come along behind. Nā mua mai ra, coming from the front.

Te na mua maira oki te matangi.
For there was a head wind (Matt. 14.24). Tō mua, nō mua, belong to the front or foremost position.

To mua e manganui ra e riro no muri; e to muri ra, e riro ia no mua.
Many that are first shall be last, and those that are last, they shall be first (Mark 10.31).

(b) Referring to time.

2. Ahead (as we look into the future), coming, next.

Ā tēia marama ki mua,
this coming month, next month;

‘Ei tēia kī‘anga marama i mua e ‘akataka ai te maito.
Next full moon the black surgeonfish will be gathering.

3. First, before something else.

E vāito koe i tēia au anga pārau nā mua ka paunu ei.
Measure these pearl shells before you weigh them;

Kua tae ‘aia i mua ake iāku.
He arrived before me;

Kua puta tōku vaevae i te rākau i mua ake ka ‘anga‘anga ai māua.
I hurt my leg on a branch of something before we started work;

I mua poto ‘ua ake i te tuaero.
It rained shortly before noon.

4. The past, earlier days, former times. I mua ake nei, in former times.

‘E ‘anga‘anga mātau nā mātou i te tere ki tērā ‘ōire ē ki tērā ‘ōire i mua ake nei, kāreka i tēianei, kua kore ‘ua.
It was our custom in former times to travel from village to village, but nowadays it has died out; I mua ana, in the past.

I tae mai ana au ki konei i mua ana.
I’ve been here before. Mei mua mai, from early days.

Mei mua mai tō mātou no‘o‘anga ki runga i tēia ‘enua ē tae ‘ua mai ki tēia rā.
We have occupied this land from long ago right up to today.

5. n. The first (in time or place).

Tāna tama mua,
his eldest son;

Ko tā‘au pā ‘ānani mua tēia e ‘ārote.
These are the rows of orange trees you must plough first;

Ko te pae mua o te puka tāku i tatau ei.
It is the first part of the book that I’ve read. Te mua tangata, the eldest in a family.

Ko ia tō mātou mua tangata.
He is the eldest in our family.
(See mātāmua, mōmua, muamua, muatangāna, muāvaka.)
[Pn. *mu‘a.]

muatangāna

muatangāna, loc.n. Days of yore, ancient times, antiquity, the earliest times.

I muatangāna ra, kua anga iora te Atua i te rangi e te enua.
In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth (Gen. 1.1);

Kua ‘akakore ‘oki rātou i tei muatangāna ra au peu i te tae‘anga o te ‘Ēvangeria.
They put a stop to those old customs when the Gospel arrived;

Ko au te muatangāna e te ‘aka‘openga.
I am the first and the last.
[mua, -tanga4, ana2.]

muri

muri, loc.n. Back. 1. Referring to place: (at) the back, behind.

E pēni koe i ā muri i te poti.
Paint the stern of the boat;

Kua no‘o māua ki te pā i muri mai.
We sat in the row behind;

te pā i muri roa,
the back row;

Kua ‘akauta au i taku pereue ua ki muri i te pā.
I hung my raincoat behind the door;

E ‘ākara koe ki muri, ‘e tangata tērā ake.
Look behind, there is someone coming;

Kua ‘aere ‘aia ki muri i te pū rākau.
He went behind the tree;

E neke atu koe i te rākau ki muri a‘o.
Move the stick further back;

Kua kapo te tangata ō muri i te pōro.
The back caught the ball.

2. After(wards), later.

I muri ake i tō māua ‘ārote‘anga kua ‘aere atu māua ki runga i te maunga.
We went up the hill after we had done the ploughing;

I muri ake ‘aia i tae mai ei.
Later on he arrived;

Kua tū ‘aia i te mare i muri mai.
He developed a cold afterwards; Te ao ā muri,


the next world, the world to come.

‘Ei te ao ā muri atu e kiteāi tō rātou tūtaki.
They will find their reward in the next world.
(See muringa, murimuri, muritonga.)
[Pn. *muri.]

ama

ama, n.

1. n. Outrigger float, (obsol.) smaller hull of a double canoe.

Ka ta‘uri te vaka mē māmā te ama.
The canoe will capsize if the outrigger float is too light;

Tē tarai ama nei māua.
We‘re shaping the outrigger float;

‘E rākau ama vaka tēnā i ‘apaina‘ia mai ei.
That log was fetched to make an outrigger float for the canoe.

2. loc.n. Port side (i.e. the outrigger side).

Uru ki ama,
steer to port.

runga

runga, loc.n.

1. The top. In various prepositional complexes, some of the commoner of which are given below, but the meaning of which will generally be apparent from the meaning of the prepositions ‘ei, i, ki, nā, nō, tei, etc. ‘Ei runga, let it be at the top.

‘Ei runga tēnā tua, ‘ei raro tēia.
That side must go on top and this side at the bottom. I (ki) runga, at (to) the top (of), up on, on (to).

Ko te Atua i runga i te rangi tōku kite.
God in heaven (up on the heavens) is my witness;

Kā kake au ki runga i teia pū nū.
I‘m going to climb up this coconut tree. I (ki) runga ake, (to) higher up, over (the top of), above.

‘E tangata ‘anga‘anga ‘ua au, tē vaī ra te tangata i runga ake iāku.
I‘m only an employee, but there is someone over me;

Tē tautau ‘uā ra te ‘ānani i runga ake i tōku katu.
The orange is hanging there over my head.

Kāre ‘e apinga i runga ake i te rima tiringi.
No article is more than five shillings. Nā runga, along (on), by (some means of transport).

Tē kakē ra ‘aia nā runga i te ara kākenga.
He is climbing up on the ladder;

Ka nā runga au i te ‘oro‘enua.
I‘m going by horse;

nā runga i te mōtokā,
by car;

Kua ‘īmene ‘aere rātou i tō rātou nā runga‘anga i te pere‘ō.
They sang as they went along on the wagon;

Kua nā runga‘ia tāna au pūtē kai i te ‘oro‘enua.
His sacks of food were transported by horse.

2. Among.

E tu‘a i te kai venevene nā runga i te au tamariki.
Share the sweets out among the children. Nā runga ake, across over the top of. Nō runga, about, concerning, because of, on account of, due to.

Kāre ōku manako nō runga i tēnā au tumu tuatua.
I’ve nothing to say on the things down in your agenda there.

Nō runga iāia te kino i tō mātou pupu tu‘epōro.
The trouble in our football team is all due to him. Tei runga, on, up on, (present or isochronous time).

Tei runga mātou i te maunga i kite atu ei mātou i te pa‘ī.
We were up on the hill when we saw the ship;

Tei runga iā koe te mata o te tangata.
People have got their eyes on you. Tei runga ‘ua, it depends on.

Tei runga ‘ua i tā‘au e manako.
It depends on what you think. Tō runga, belonging to the top.

Ko tō runga tua tēnā, tēia tō raro.
That is the top side you’ve got there, this is the bottom. Ki runga vai, upstream.

Tei runga vai tōna ‘are,
his house is upstream.

3. The east (but subject to much local variation, cf. raro).

Ka ‘aere au ki runga i Tiki‘oki.
I‘m going up (east) to Tiki‘oki.

4. Up-wind, windward.

Kua ‘akatere mai ‘aia i tōna vaka ki runga matangi ē te ‘openga kua ruru tōku vaka.
He sailed his canoe upwind of mine and so took my wind. Tē pā‘enua i runga, the eastern islands.

Āpōpō e ‘aere ei te pa‘ī ki te pā ‘enua i runga.
Tomorrow the ship will be going up to the islands of the east.
[Pn. *lu„a.]

roto1

roto1, loc.n.

1. Inside, within.

Tei roto roa te unga i te va‘arua, kāre e taea e au i te ‘ītae.
The crab is right inside the hole, I can’t get to reach it

; ‘okota‘i nō roto i te ‘ā,
one out of four;

mei roto mai ia Tiūnu,
since June;

‘Aere ki roto i te ‘are, ka mā‘ū koe.
Go inside the house, you‘ll get wet;

‘Aere mai nā roto ‘e ua tēnā.
Come along inside, it is raining out there;

Ko ‘ai tērā i roto?
Who is that in there?;

Kā no‘o au ki roto i teia pupu.
I‘m staying with this team;

Kua vera ā roto iāku.
I’ve got a burning sensation inside me;

Kua tāpū ‘ua ‘aia i taua tuatua ki roto iāia.
He kept the story to himself;

Kua kinokino ā roto iāia i tōna ‘akarongo‘anga ē kua maki tōna metua.
He was upset to hear his father was ill;

nā roto i te terepaoni,
over the phone;

tuatua‘anga nā roto i te terepaoni,
speaking over the phone.

2. n. Entrails, internal organs (heart, liver, lungs, but not usually the gut). Te roto o te puaka, the pig’s innards;

Ta‘una ki te umu te roto.
Cook the innards in the oven.

3. Disposition, temper, (inward) state of mind. Roto kino, spiteful, malicious.

‘E va‘ine roto kino tika ai koe.
You are a malicious (mean, spiteful) woman. Roto riri, bad-tempered.

‘E tangata roto riri ‘aia.
He is an irascible man. ‘Akano‘o roto, to harbour suspicions.

Kua ‘akano‘o roto ‘aia iā Turi.
He had his suspicions about Turi;

Kua ‘akano‘o roto te ‘akavā ē nā Tau i keiā i te moni.
The policeman suspected that it was Tau who had stolen the money.

4. The second or inner of certain sequences of nights of the moon, e.g. roto Tangaroa, the twenty-third night of the moon and the second of three nights named Tangaroa.

‘E roto Tangaroa tēia arāpō.
It is the twenty-third night of the moon tonight.
[Pn. *loto.]

rotopū

rotopū, loc.n. The middle, between, among.

Tīpūa te ika ki rotopū.
Cut the fish in the middle (i.e. in two);

E kōputa iā rotopū i te rākau.
Make a hole in the middle of the piece of wood;

I tōna pupu‘i‘anga kua puta ki rotopū i te tāpa‘o.
When he fired, he hit the bullseye;

Kua ‘aere mai ‘aia ē kua tū ki rotopū ia māua.
He came and stood between us;

I rotopū i te ora iva ē te ora nga‘uru i tae mai ei ‘aia.
It was between nine and ten that he got here;

Kua no‘o ‘aia ki rotopū ia mātou ē ‘oki ‘ua atu ‘aia.
He stayed with us until he had to go;

Nā tēta‘i i rotopū ia kōtou i rave i teia ‘anga‘anga.
It was one of you (some of you) who did this;

i rotopū i te rima iāti,
within five yards.

reira

reira, loc.n. That (place, time, method, circumstance, etc., which has been referred to, is under discussion, or is understood). I reira, then, from that.

I reira māua i kite ei ē ko te ariki tika ai te reira.
Then we realised that he really was the king;

Mē kāre koe e kai i te moa, ‘ea‘a i reira tā‘au kā kai?
If you aren’t going to have any chicken, what are you going to eat then? Ki reira, to that place.

E no‘o ki reira kā no‘o au ki konei.
You sit there, I‘ll sit here. Nō reira, therefore, from that, from that place.

Nō reira tika ai te mata‘iapo i ‘uipā ai inapō.
That’s the real reason why the chiefs had a meeting last night;

Nāku i ‘ōpara iāia, nō reira ‘aia i ‘inga ai.
I gave him a shove, that’s why he fell down;

Nō reira mai koe inana‘i?
Is that where you came from yesterday? Nā reira, by that route, via that place, in that way, by that method.

I nā reira mai au i tōku ‘aere‘anga mai.
I passed through there on my way here;

Kua nā reira rātou i te rave‘anga.
That’s the way they did it. Mei reira, from there, from then.

Mei reira mai au.
I’ve come from there;

Mei reira mai ē tae mai ki teia rā tō rāua no‘o pekapeka ‘ua‘anga.
They’ve been quarrelling from that day to this;

‘E ora‘anga mataora tōna mei reira mai.
He had a good life from then on. Mei (tē) tei reira, like that.

E tuatua koe kiāia mei tei reira tika ai.
That’s just the way you want to talk to him;

Mei tei reira tika ai te tū i tō māua no‘o‘anga.
That’s the way the pair of us lived. (Tē) Tei reira, that one (there, or in question).

Kua to‘u ‘aere ‘aia ki te tangata ē i tōna to‘u‘anga kiā Pere kua kāpiki atu au, Āe, ko (tē) tei reira.
He pointed to various people and when he came to Pere I shouted out, yes, that’s the one;

te ngā‘i tei reira te taote,
the place where the doctor is. Tō reira, belonging to that.

Ko tei reira tangata tā‘au e ‘apai.
That’s the man I want you to take;

Kāre e nā māua i rave i tē reira ‘anga‘anga.
It wasn’t us that did that job;

Nā tei reira tuatua i ‘akamūtēkī iāia.
It was saying that that shut him up;

E ‘aka‘oki meitaki i tō reira au ‘apinga.
Put the things that belong there back carefully;

E vao‘o atu nā tō reira tangata e rave i tei reira ‘anga‘anga.
Leave that job to the people who belong there to get on with.
[Ce. *reira.]

raro

raro, loc.n.

1. Down, below.

E ‘eke ki raro.
Get down, get off;

Tei raro i te ava te pa‘ī.
The ship is down in the harbour;

Ko‘ai tērā tamaiti i raro i te vai?
Who is that child down in the water?;

Ka ‘īmene ‘ua au nā raro, kāre e taea te reo teitei.
I‘ll just fill in (an octave) below, I can’t reach the high notes;

‘Akaputu‘ia te tītā ki raro i te pū ‘ānani.
Pile up the cut grass under the orange tree. Raro ake, underneath.

Tukuna te pi‘a ki raro ake i te kaingākai.
Put the box down underneath the table. Nā raro ake, across underneath, etc. Nā raro ‘ua, on foot (lacking other transport).

Kua ‘oki ‘aia ki te kāinga nā raro ‘ua.
He just had to go home on foot. Raro roa, the very bottom.

Te puka i raro roa,
the book right at the bottom. Raro vai, downstream.

Kua peke te tītā ki raro vai.
The rubbish floated down-stream.

2. Leeward.

E tuku i te poti ki raro matangi.
Keep (steer) the boat to leeward.

3. (On N. and S. coast settlements, e.g. Avarua or Titikāveka, but subject to much local variation) west.

E ‘apai mai koe i te pākoti tītā mē ‘oki mai koe mei raro mai.
Bring the lawn-mower when you come back from the west.

4. In prep. complexes (esp. with ) used as a verbal substitute (-a).

Kua mā‘ū rāua i tō rāua nā raro‘anga i te kauvai.
They got wet crossing through the river;

Kua nā raro rātou i te kauvai i te ‘apaina‘anga ki tēta‘i tua i te ‘enua.
They were taken through the river to the other side of the country;

KĀ nā raro ‘ua koe?
Are you just going to walk?;

Kā nā raro ‘ua au i te ‘aere ki Muri.
I‘ll just be walking to Muri.

5. Shade (of trees).

Tē no‘o nei māua i raro i te raro-rākau, kua ‘akarongo māua i te tangi pu‘i.
We were sitting down here in the shade of the tree when we heard a whistle;

Kua no‘ono‘o ‘aere ‘ua te tangata ki raro i te au raro-kuru nō te vera.
The people were sitting around in the shade of the breadfruit trees because it was so hot;

‘e raro-ngāngā‘ere,
underneath the trees.
[Pn. *lalo.]

1

1, v.i.

1. Be night, be dark.

Kua pō te rā, ‘aere mai kā ‘oki tāua.
The day is over (it’s getting dark), come on, let’s go back;

Kua ‘anga‘anga mātou mei te pōpongi mai ē pō ‘ua atu.
We worked through from morning to night;

Kua ‘aere ‘aia ki te ‘ura i te pō‘anga ake.
He went to the dance later in the evening.

2. Blind, sightless (of the eyes).

Kua pō tōna mata.
She is blind;

Kua kimi rāi te taote i te rāvenga i te pō‘anga tōna mata, inā rā kāre i manuia.
The doctor tried everything when her sight failed, but without success;

Kua meitaki tōna ngā mata i pō ana.
Both eyes that she had lost the sight of got better.

3. n. Night, darkness.

Kua roa te pō i tēianei.
It is late in the night now;

‘E pō pōiri tēia ē te matangi katoa.
It is a dark night, and windy with it;

‘E pō ika tēia i te rama.
This is a good night for fishing with torches. Pō Mata‘iti, New Year’s Eve. Pō Rua, Tuesday. Pō Toru, Wednesday (Ait. dial., cf. Rar.

Ru‘irua, Ru‘itoru).

4. Special day, celebrated occasion. Pō kai, a day of feasting.

E pokai tana tei roto i tona uaorai are, mei te pokai a te ariki ra.
He held a feast in his own house, like the feast of a king (1 Sam. 25.36).

5. The Polynesian underworld. Tō te pō, the inhabitants of the underworld, the spirits of the dead.

Kā riri tō te pō mē ta‘una‘ia te a‘i ki runga i te marae.
The spirits will be angry if a fire is lit upon the

marae.

6. The Christian hell.

Ka uriia te tangata kino ki te po.
The wicked shall be turned to hell (Ps. 9.17).

7. loc.n. Days of yore, the distant past.

‘E tuatua tupuna tēia mei pō mai ē tae mai ki tēia rā.
This has been a proverb with us from long, long ago right up to the present day.
(see āpōpō, arāpō, ‘inapōiri, ‘inapōtea, (‘aka)matapō, mata-pōiri, (‘aka-,tā-)pōiri, (‘aka-,tā-)pōpōiri, pōkere, pōkerekere, ? pōpōā, pōpongi, tūruā‘ipō.)
[Pn. *poo.]

tai

tai, n.

1. The sea, tide; salt water.

Kua ngaru te tai.
The sea is rough;

Te ka‘atea ‘uā ra te ‘ukā-tai i te pae tai.
The foam showed white on the beach. Tai pī , full tide, high tide.

KAre i te tai pī , te va‘a atū ra.
It’s not high tide, it’s going out. Tai marō, tai va‘a, low tide. Tai va‘a, tai ‘eke (Mang. dial.), outgoing tide. Tai ka‘u, tai kapu (Mang. dial.), incoming tide. Tai roto, lagoon.

Kāre ‘e tai roto i te reira ‘enua.
There is no lagoon on that island.

2. loc.n. Seaward.

Nekea ki tai ake.
Move towards the sea a bit;

E ‘oro koe ki tai i te ‘ōire.
Run down (seaward) to the village (e.g. from the plantations inland).

3. n. Sauce made from salt water. Tai ‘akari, a sauce made from coconut cream and salt water often with lime juice added, coconut sauce.

Tī to‘ua tō ika ki te tai ‘akari.
Dip your fish in the coconut sauce. Tai vaka, plain sea water used as sauce.

Ka meitaki ‘ua te tai ‘oe vaka ‘ei tī to‘u i te matū puaka.
Salt water will do for sauce with the pork fat.
[Pn. *tahi.]

uta1

uta1, loc.n. Inland, landward, the interior, ashore.

Kua ‘oki ‘aia ki uta i te ‘anga-‘anga.
He went back to his work in the interior;

Ka ‘aere au ki uta i kō.
I‘ll go inland there;

Kāre te pātete e ‘akatikā‘ia kia kake ki uta.
Passengers are not allowed ashore;

Tē pē‘ea maī ra ā uta?
How have things been going inland (or on the main island)?

[Pn. *‘uta1.]

‘ito1

‘ito1, loc.n. Days of yore, ancient times.

Kua vai taua tuatuā ra ‘ei ‘ākara‘anga nā taua ‘iti tangatā ra mei ‘ito mai ē tae ‘ua mai ki tēia rā.
That saying has remained a precept for those people from ancient times right up until today;

Kāre e rauka iāia i te ‘akapapa i tōna tupu‘anga mei ‘ito mai, nō te mea tē iti ‘uā ra ‘aia i mate ei tōna ngā metua.
He can’t recite his genealogy down from days of yore because both his parents died when he was still very small.
(See ta‘ito.)