-a5, morph. Marks the verb as passive. Stylistically, this suffix and its variants emphasise the verbal action, hence their frequent use in imperative sentences. (cf. -nga3, -ngia, -ia4, -kia4, -kina4, -mia, -na4, -ria2, -tia4.)
‘ā-7, morph. Attenuative or diminutive in meaning, rather, somewhat, -ish.
‘E pēni ‘āmuramura tē kā tano.
A reddish paint would be suitable;
kia ‘āmarū mai te matangi,
when the wind eases off a little. Often used with the direction particles
to form comparatives:
Kua ‘āngari mai tōna maki i tēia rā.
He is a bit better today;
‘E ‘āmāmā ake te ‘oko i tēia punu ū.
This tin of milk is a little cheaper;
Kua ‘āma‘ata mai te tangata i te pure i tēia pōpongi.
There are a few more people at church this morning.
(see ‘āangiangi, ‘āngari, ‘ā‘īkoke, ‘ākerekere, ‘ākō‘ina‘ina, ‘ākōtu‘utu‘u, ‘āmāmā, ‘ā(ma)ma‘ata, ‘āmā‘atama‘ata, ‘āmamao, ‘āmaru(maru), ‘āmarū, ‘āpakapaka, ‘āpiri(piri), ‘ārenga(renga), ‘āre‘ure‘u, ‘āroeroe, ‘āteatea, ‘āto‘u(to‘u), ‘āupe(upe).)
-anga5, morph. Nominalising suffix, indicating the occasion or time of the action of the base.
‘a-2, morph. As in ‘aupe (droop) is perhaps a variant of ‘ā-8, q.v.
a-3, -a-, morph. Form occurring in the first and third person singular possessives, neutralising the distinction between alienable and inalienable possession marked by ā1 and ō1; used in informal situations where it would be inappropriate to state the nature of the relationship between possessor and possessed. (cf. taku, aku2, tana, ana3.)
ā-3, morph. Meaning uncertain, but see āranga(ranga), ārangatū, ākere(kere).
-a-4, morph. Pluralising element arising from lengthening of the stem vowel a in the nouns tāngata, men, tuā‘ine, sisters, vā‘ine, women.
-ā4, morph. Meaning uncertain, but see ‘ave‘aveā, ngarungaruā, (kō)‘iri‘iriā, maromaroā, moemoeā, (‘aka)pā‘aruā, tuputupuā, (‘aka)vaiā.
‘ā-8, morph. Often causative in meaning, cf. inu to drink,
to give sbdy a drink.
(see ‘aka‘āvai, ‘ā‘ei, ‘āinu(inu), ‘āmama-(mama), ‘āmiri(miri), ‘ānape, ‘āoro(oro), ‘āpapa(papa), ‘ārī, ‘ātui(tui), ‘āupe(upe).)
‘aka-2, morph. N.B. Many words containing the prefix ‘aka- can be used in more than one of the following ways. Words beginning with ‘aka-, which is an extremely productive affix, are entered in alphabetical position in the body of the dictionary. (cf. ‘a-8 which is nearly synonymous with ‘aka in sense 3 below, and tā-7.)
1. Causative or ergative, to cause or make something happen. Used typically to convert intransitive into transitive sentences. The subject of the intransitive sentence becomes the object of the transitive sentence, thus allowing the agent (the performer of the action) to be introduced as the subject of the ‘aka- sentence. Compare
Kua kī te pi‘a.
The box is full:
Kua ‘akakī ‘aia i te pi‘a.
He filled the box;
Kua ma‘ora te kie.
The sail unfurled:
Kua ‘akama‘ora rāua i te kie.
They unfurled the sail;
to go free:
to set free;
to go back:
to send back;
to be at an end:
to bring to an end.
2. Used to convert the subject of an underlying transitive sentence into a secondary agent or instrument (marked by the prep. ki), thus allowing a primary agent to be introduced as the subject of the ‘aka- sentence.
Kua kakati te puakaoa i te tamaiti.
The dog bit the child;
Kua ‘akakakati te va‘ine i te puakaoa ki te tamaiti.
The woman made the dog bite the child;
Kua ‘ongi au i te tiare.
I sniffed the flower;
kua ‘aka‘ongi te va‘ine i te tiare kiāku,
the woman got me to sniff the flower.
3. Used before a few noun stems. Atua, God; ‘akaatua, to deify, make a god of; ‘enemi, enemy;
to alienate, make an enemy of.
4. Inchoative: to become, to start to happen. Used before intransitive verbs which denote states or conditions, it indicates the coming about of that state or condition; before verbs which denote actions, it indicates the commencing or performing of that action. Kua anu te vai, the water was cold;
Kua ‘akaanu te vai.
The water went cold;
Kua para te vī.
The mangoes are ripe;
Kua ‘akapara te vī.
The mangoes have begun to ripen;
to be yellow;
to turn yellow;
to be ill;
to become ill;
to be lame, to limp;
to go lame, to start to limp;
to be quick;
to make haste.
5. Approximative: rather, somewhat, -ish, approaching a given state.
‘E pēni matie,
a green paint;
‘e pēni ‘akamatie,
a greenish paint.
6. Simulative, to make sbdy out to be, to call sbdy something; to pretend to be. Kua ‘akava-‘ine ‘aia iā Tere. He called Tere effeminate (made Tere out to be like a woman);
Kua ‘akamaki ‘aia iāia.
He made out to be ill.
7. Used to express collateral relationships. Tua‘ine, (a man’s) sister;
Ka ‘akatua‘ine au iāia.
She is my cousin (I make her like a sister).
-rua, morph. marking dual pronominal number in kōrua.
rā-3, 3rd person pron. morph. found only in rāua and rātou, q.v.
tā-1. 1st person inclusive morph. in tāua, tātou, q.v.
‘ī-7, morph. Meaning indeterminate.
(See ‘īngore(ngore), ‘īkape(kape), ‘īkara(kara), ‘īkaro(karo), ‘īpana(pana), ‘īpeke(peke), ‘īrau(rau), ‘ītae(tae), ‘ītoe(toe), (‘aka)-‘ītoro(toro).)