ana2

ana2, part. The English translation of this particle will vary according to the tense/-aspect particle at the beginning of the clause and according to the time reference (stated or understood) of the sentence in which it occurs.

1. E verb ana, habitual aspect. Translate by the English simple present tense or (when the reference is to past time) by ‘used to’.

E ‘aere ana au ki tē reira ‘are teata.
I go to that cinema;

E tāvarevare ‘ua ana ‘aia.
He is always late;

E no‘o ana ‘aia ki Nīkao i tē reira tuātau.
He used to live (or was living) at Nīkao then.

2. I verb ana or kua verb ana, before, prior to the present or to the time referred to. Translate by one of the English (present or past) perfect tenses.

I ‘aere ana au ki tē reira teata.
I’ve (I’d) been to that film;

Kua ‘akakite atu au kiāia ē kua pati ana au kiāia.
I told him that I had (already) asked him;

‘E tangata kē tei ‘aere mai, kāre ē ko te tangata i ‘aere mai ana.
It was someone else who came, not the one who had been coming before;

I tamariki ana ‘oki tātou pou roa.
All of us, indeed, have been children (once);

I piri ana tōna reo, kua nga‘ā rā.
He had lost his voice, but it came back.

3. In negative sentences, ana is often used where the corresponding positive sentence would have nei or ra.

Kāre te va‘ine e ‘anga‘anga ana
(the woman isn’t (wasn’t) working) is a negative form of the sentence

tē ‘anga‘anga nei (tē ‘anga‘angā ra) te va‘ine
(the woman is (was) working).

4. Used when making a request, and to soften the force of an imperative.

‘Aere mai ana.
Would you come here;

‘Āria ana.
Wait a moment.
[Pn. *ana.]

ake1

ake1, part. A little distance away, a little time away.

1. Approaching, but a little way off.

Tēia ake ‘a Tere.
Here comes Tere;

Tērā ake ‘a Tere.
There comes Tere;

Neke atu kōtou kia iri mai tērā ake aronga.
Move up a bit so that those people coming can get on board.

2. To one side, involving a detour.

‘Akaātea ake!
Stand aside;

Inā ake!
Out of the way!;

Kua ‘aere ake ‘aia ki te toa.
She has gone round to the shop;

Ka ‘aere au ki Ta‘iti ē ka nā Nū Tirēni ake i te ‘oki mai.
I‘m going to Tahiti and coming back via New Zealand.

3. Coming on afterwards (to where the speaker is now going).

Ka ‘aere ake koe?
Will you be coming on afterwards?;

Tē ‘akaruke nei au, ‘e āru ake koe.
I‘m leaving now, you follow on;

Mē ‘ē ‘aia i te ‘aere mai, ‘e ‘akakite koe kia tiki ake iāku.
If he should turn up, tell him to come on and fetch me.

4. Continuing here (where the speaker is now leaving).

‘E tuatua ake kōrua, tē ‘aere nei au.
You two carry on talking, I‘m going now;

‘E no‘o ake rā!
Goodbye! (i.e. you stay on — a farewell said by the person about to leave);

‘E ko‘i ake koe i te kāka‘u mē ua.
Take in the clothes if it rains (later on, when I‘m not here).

5. Yet.

Kua kā ake te a‘i?
Is the fire alight yet?;

Kua ‘akaoti ake te tārērē?
Have the exams finished yet?;

Kāre ‘aia i ara ake?
Isn’t he awake yet?;

Kāre ake rāi i tae mai ake.
It still hasn’t arrived yet.

6. Used to make comparisons.

‘E ma‘ata ake ‘a Tuna iā Pine.
Tuna is bigger than Pine;

‘E poto ake tēnā i tēia.
That one is shorter than this one;

‘E ‘oake kia ra‘i ake tāna kai i tāku.
Give him more food than me;

Ko koe tei kite ake i te taote?
You know better than the doctor, do you? Kāre ake, no more.

Kāre ake ō kōrua teina kē?
Haven’t you two got any more little brothers (yet)?;

Kāre ake ā kōtou kīkau vai ua?
You haven’t got any more spare baskets? Kāre ake, kāre ake, none at all anywhere.

7. Used after locative nouns in prepositional and adverbial constructions. Ki/i runga i, on top of. Ki/i runga ake i, over the top of, above. Ki/i mua ake, (a little) before, (a little in front of).

‘E tū koe ki mua ake iāia.
You stand before he does, you stand in front of him;

Kia tae mai koe i mua ake i te ora varu.
Get here before eight o‘clock. Ki/i muri ake, (soon) afterwards, (a little) behind.

I muri ake ‘aia i ‘akakite mai ei.
He told me afterwards. Ki/i raro ake, under, below, further down. Ki/i runga ake, over, above, further up. Ki/i rotopū ake, further inside. Tērā ake, last.

I tērā ake ‘uipā-‘anga,
at the last meeting;

i tērā ake marama,
last month;

i tērā ake mata‘iti,
last year.

9. In expressions of wishful thinking.

Ko au ake!
I wish it were me!;

Nāku ake!
I wish it belonged to me!;

Nāna ake.
I wish it were his.
(see akenei, akēra.)
[Pn. *hake.]

ravarāi, rava rāi

ravarāi, rava rāi,

1. Intensive of rava2. Most certainly, etc.

I kite ravarāi māua iāia ki te ‘ura inapō.
We most certainly did see him at the dance last night.

2. Post-nominal part. Every single one, without exception.

Ē te aronga ravarāi tei ‘aere mai ki taua tārekareka kua ‘ope roa rātou i te mataora.
And every single person who came to that match was absolutely delighted with it;

Kua tutuki tōna rongo ki te au‘enua rava rāi.
His fame spread to all lands;

rāua rava rāi,
both of them.
[rava2, rāi.]

rava2

rava2, post-verbal part. Certainly, definitely, wholly, quite, perfectly, completely.

Ka ‘aere rava au ka ‘akakite iā koe ki te ‘akavā.
I shall most certainly go and report you to the police;

Kua tika rava iāku.
I quite agree, I‘m perfectly willing;

Kāre rava au e tuku i te ‘au.
I‘ll never give in;

I kite rava au iāia ki te ‘ura inapō.
I most certainly did see him at the dance last night.
[Pn. *lawa1.]

rāi

rāi, part.

1. Post-nom. Just, exactly, really actual, real, very.

Ko tōna ingoa rāi tēnā.
That’s his name all right;

Ko te pare rāi tēnā e ‘a‘ao putuputu ana ‘aia.
That’s the very cap he often wears;

I taua taime rāi,
at that very moment.

2. Post-verbal. Certainly, surely, undoubtedly, really, quite, fairly, rather, only.

Ka ‘aere rāi au.
I‘m definitely going;

Pē‘ea koe? Meitaki rāi.
How are you? Not so bad, pretty fair;

‘E manako meitaki rāi tēnā.
That’s quite a good idea (of yours);

‘Ōkota‘i rāi tei tae mai.
Only one came;

‘okota‘i rāi tirīngi,
only one shilling;

‘Ē toru nga‘uru rāi tangata kā iri.
There is only room for thirty people;

‘Ē rua take o tēnā tamaiti, nō reira rāi i kangāi.
That child has a double crown, that’s really why he’s mischievous. Tika rāi, that’s quite correct, that’s right (a common interjection of assent to a factual statement).

Kua ‘akarongo au ē ‘e maki koe? Tika rāi.
I heard you were sick? That’s right. I te taime rāi, as soon as.

I tō rātou inu‘anga rāi i te vai,
as soon as they drank the water;

i te tāime rāi e tae mai ei te pa‘ī,
as soon as the ship arrives. Taua…rāi, the very same.

E ‘ārāvei mai iāku i taua ngā‘i rāī ra.
Meet me at the very same place.

2. Still.

Ka tiaki au ‘ē toru rā, mē kāre rāi koe e ‘oki mai, ka ‘aere atu au i reira.
I‘ll wait there three days and if you haven’t returned I‘ll leave;

Tei te _ api‘i rāi ‘aia.
He’s still at school;

Tē kā ‘uā ra rāi te a‘i i teia pōpongi.
The fire was still alight this morning;

Te ‘anga‘anga nei rāi te ora.
The clock is still working.

toko1

toko1, part. A particle word before numbers from two to nine, and a few count words such as ra‘i, -‘ia, iti, when the reference is to people; it is usually written prefixed.

Toko‘ia tangata i ‘aere?
How many people went?;

tokorima va‘ine, tokorua tāne,
five women and two men;

Ko‘ai te tokovaru ia kōtou?
Who is the eighth man with you?;

Kāre i te tokora‘i.
There are not many (people);

Tokora‘i tei ‘iki‘ia, tokoiti tei tae mai.
Many were invited, but few attended.
[Pn. *toko2.]

‘ua2

‘ua2, part.

1. Just, merely, only, simply, without any real or special quality, reason, cause or point.

‘E tangata ‘ua nei, mei iā koe rāi te roa.
He is just an ordinary fellow, the same height as you are;

‘e pona teatea ‘ua,
just a plain white dress;

‘E ‘oro‘enua pō‘itirere ‘ua tēia.
This horse gets startled easily (for no reason);

‘E kite ‘ua ana au iāia.
I often see him about (run into him casually, etc.);

‘apinga tupu ‘ua,
something which just grows;

mā‘ana‘ana ‘ua,
barely warm, only lukewarm;

Kua ‘aere ‘ua mai ‘aia.
He just turned up here (e.g. uninvited, with no particular object in view, or without bringing a present, etc.).

2. Emphasising absence or lack.

Kāre ‘ua ‘e puaka, kua ora.
There is no pig here, it has escaped;

Kāre ‘ua au i kite.
I don’t know anything at all about it.

3. Emphasising singleness, translate as ‘only, alone’.

Ko ia ‘ua tē ka ‘aere mai.
He is the only one who will be coming;

Ko koe ‘ua tāku tamaiti.
You are my only child;

Tei iāia ‘ua te tika.
It is entirely up to him;

Nō reira ‘ua au i ‘aere mai ei.
That’s all I came for;

Kua ma‘ani kōkota mātou i te ara kia ō ‘ua te tangata i te ‘aere.
We made the path narrow so people could only just squeeze through.

4. Quite (a mild intensive).

Kā rava ‘ua tēia.
This will be quite sufficient, this will do.

5. Just.

‘E mea ‘ua nāna.
It was just something he said.
[Pn. *fua5.]

ia2

ia2, part. So, then, in that case, for that reason.

Kāre ia ‘aia e ‘aere mai.
So she won’t be coming, then;

Ka ‘aere rā ia tāua.
So let’s go, then;

Mē kua rave ‘aia i te kino, nā kōtou ia ‘aia e ‘akavā.
If he has committed a crime, then you must judge him;

Kāre ia i tika taua tuatuā ra.
So the story isn’t true, then.