mei3

mei3, v.part. Nearly, almost.

Mei puta rāi au i te toka i tō‘ou pē‘i‘anga mai.
I nearly got hit with that stone you threw;

Kua ‘akapō‘itirere‘ia tōku ‘oro‘enua e Tere, ē mei topa rāi au ki raro.
Tere startled my horse and I almost fell off.
[1, i1.]

i1

i1, v.part. Retrospective in force, usually translatable by an English past or perfect tense, or sometimes (esp. with statives) by a simple present.

1. In clause initial position, often in association with ana2 after the verb.

I kite au iāia i te pō Varaire.
I saw him on Friday night;

I a‘a ana rātou?
What have (or had) they been doing?

2. When the clause does not commence with the verb, i is normally used instead of kua (perfective aspect marker):

(a) after kāre ‘not‘:

Kāre rātou i kai i te ‘akari.
They didn’t eat the coconut
(cf. Kua kai rātou i te ‘akari.
They ate the coconut);

Kāre au i pongi.
I‘m not hungry, I haven’t got hungry
(cf. Kua pongi au.
I‘m hungry, I’ve got hungry);

(b) after


+ agent:

Nā te tamaiti i ‘āngai i te puaka.
The boy fed the pigs
(cf. Kua ‘āngai te tamaiti i te puaka.
The boy fed the pigs);

(c) in relative clauses:

‘E mōtokā tāna i ‘inangaro.
It was a car that he wanted
(cf. Kua ‘inangaro ‘aia i tēta‘i mōtokā.
He wanted a car);

(d) when an adverbial of time, place or reason stands before the verb:

Nō reira tika ai te mata‘iapo i ‘uipā ei inapō.
That must be why the chiefs met last night.
(See tei2; cf. e1.)

kia2

kia2, v.part. Essentially optative in meaning.

1. Mildly imperative or exhortatory, expressing a desire or wish rather than a strong command.

Kia vave mai!
Be quick! (Don’t be long!);

Kia viviki mai!
Be quick! (Don’t dawdle!);

Kia matakite!
Be careful!;

Kia ora te ariki!
Long live the king!;

Kia manuia!
Good luck!;

Kia tapu toou ingoa, Kia tae toou basileia, Kia akonoia toou anoano.
Hallowed be Thy name, Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done (Luke 11.2);

Kia rave ana koe i tēnā ‘anga‘anga.
Would you do that job;

Kia tae mai ki te ‘anga‘anga ā te pōpongi Mōnitē.
Come to work on Monday morning;

Kia akasatauroia aia
(Matt. 27.22). Let him be crucified;

Tēia te tātāpaka, kia kai koe.
Here’s the breadfruit pudding, eat up.

2. Introducing the complement of a verb of command, request, permission, ability, obligation.

Kua ‘akaue ‘aia iāku kia tāpū.
He ordered me to stop;

Kua ma‘ani rāua iāku kia tuku i tāku tamaiti ki te ‘āpi‘i.
They made me send my child to school;

Tukuna te tamariki kia ‘aere kia tārekareka.
Let the children go and play;

‘E mea meitaki kia pati koe.
It would be a good idea for you to ask;

‘Auraka koe e tuku i tō‘ou ‘oro‘enua kia ‘aere ‘ua.
Don’t let your horse just roam around;

‘Auraka kia nga‘ā te karāti i te tamaiti.
Don’t let the child break the tumbler;

Ka rauka (or kāre e rauka) iāku kia ‘oro. I can (or can’t) run;

E tau rava te maki kia rapakau‘ia.
The disease must certainly be treated;

E tau i te tangataa ra kia tauturu mai.
The man ought to help.

3. In order that, so that.

Kua ‘ōpara rāua kia taka te toka.
They pushed to get the stone rolling;

E ‘akakī koe i te nga‘ā kia kore e tuturu ‘aka‘ou.
Fill up the crack to stop it leaking again;

Tukia kia ririnui.
Slam it hard;

Pāmua kia eta.
Pump it up hard.

4. When, until.

Kia pō tātou ka ‘aere ei.
When it’s night, then we‘ll go;

Kia oti tēnā pi‘a meika i te ‘ākara, ka pātiti ei.
When the crate has been inspected, you can nail it down;

Kā no‘o tātou kia pō, ka ‘aere ei.
We‘ll wait until it’s night before we go;

E tiaki koe kia oti tāku ‘anga‘anga.
Wait until my work is done.

[Np. *kia1.]

ka1, kā1

ka1, 1, v.part. Marks inceptive aspect.

1. Refers prospectively to the commencement of an action or state. Often translatable by an English future tense or ‘going to’ construction.

Ka ‘aere au ki te ‘āpi‘i āpōpō.
I‘m going to go to school tomorrow;

Ka ‘ī mene ‘a Mere ākonei i te pō.
Mary is going to sing later on tonight;

Ko te ‘ānani tē ka ‘inangaro mua‘ia.
The oranges will be needed first;

Kua kite au ē kā riri ‘a Tere.
I know (or knew) that Tere will (or would) be angry;

Ka ‘ārote au i nana‘i, nō te ua rā, kua ‘akakore au.
I was going to do the ploughing yesterday, but gave it up because of the rain;

I nana‘i, iāku ka ‘aere ei ki runga, kua kite au iāia.
Yesterday, just as I was about to go up (the road), I caught sight of him;

I teia au marama i topa ake nei, mē mā‘ara‘ara ‘aia i tōna ‘enua ‘ānau, ka auē ‘aia.
These last months, whenever he remembered his native land, he’d start to cry.

2. Used as an imperative (more peremptory than e1).

Ka ‘apai atu koe i teia pēpa.
You take this paper away;

Kā tiki te kana.
Fetch the grater;

Ka tuatua māori tāua.
Let’s speak Maori.

3. Used before numerals (and the numeral interrogative ‘ia) when reckoning up.

Kā rima ā mātou tupa.
That‘ll be five crabs we’ve caught now;

Kā ‘ia pūtē kōpara i kī i teianei? Kā rima nga‘uru.
How many bags of copra are filled now? Fifty;

Kā ta‘i ‘epetoma i teianei, kāre ake rāi i pu‘era ake te mata o te punua kiorengiāo.
That‘ll be a week now, and the kittens’ eyes aren’t open yet;

Kāre ‘aia i kaikai kā toru rā.
She hasn’t eaten for three days now;

Kā ta‘i, kā rua, kā toru, e ‘oro!
One, two, three, go!;

‘Ī toru taime i te toru kā iva.
Three times three makes nine.

N.B. The form occurs before words consisting of one long or two short syllables, ka elsewhere (see also kāre, kā‘ore).

[Pn. *ka.]