1. The top. In various prepositional complexes, some of the commoner of which are given below, but the meaning of which will generally be apparent from the meaning of the prepositions ‘ei, i, ki, nā, nō, tei, etc. ‘Ei runga, let it be at the top.
‘Ei runga tēnā tua, ‘ei raro tēia.
That side must go on top and this side at the bottom. I (ki) runga, at (to) the top (of), up on, on (to).
Ko te Atua i runga i te rangi tōku kite.
God in heaven (up on the heavens) is my witness;
Kā kake au ki runga i teia pū nū.
I‘m going to climb up this coconut tree. I (ki) runga ake, (to) higher up, over (the top of), above.
‘E tangata ‘anga‘anga ‘ua au, tē vaī ra te tangata i runga ake iāku.
I‘m only an employee, but there is someone over me;
Tē tautau ‘uā ra te ‘ānani i runga ake i tōku katu.
The orange is hanging there over my head.
Kāre ‘e apinga i runga ake i te rima tiringi.
No article is more than five shillings. Nā runga, along (on), by (some means of transport).
Tē kakē ra ‘aia nā runga i te ara kākenga.
He is climbing up on the ladder;
Ka nā runga au i te ‘oro‘enua.
I‘m going by horse;
nā runga i te mōtokā,
Kua ‘īmene ‘aere rātou i tō rātou nā runga‘anga i te pere‘ō.
They sang as they went along on the wagon;
Kua nā runga‘ia tāna au pūtē kai i te ‘oro‘enua.
His sacks of food were transported by horse.
E tu‘a i te kai venevene nā runga i te au tamariki.
Share the sweets out among the children. Nā runga ake, across over the top of. Nō runga, about, concerning, because of, on account of, due to.
Kāre ōku manako nō runga i tēnā au tumu tuatua.
I’ve nothing to say on the things down in your agenda there.
Nō runga iāia te kino i tō mātou pupu tu‘epōro.
The trouble in our football team is all due to him. Tei runga, on, up on, (present or isochronous time).
Tei runga mātou i te maunga i kite atu ei mātou i te pa‘ī.
We were up on the hill when we saw the ship;
Tei runga iā koe te mata o te tangata.
People have got their eyes on you. Tei runga ‘ua, it depends on.
Tei runga ‘ua i tā‘au e manako.
It depends on what you think. Tō runga, belonging to the top.
Ko tō runga tua tēnā, tēia tō raro.
That is the top side you’ve got there, this is the bottom. Ki runga vai, upstream.
Tei runga vai tōna ‘are,
his house is upstream.
3. The east (but subject to much local variation, cf. raro).
Ka ‘aere au ki runga i Tiki‘oki.
I‘m going up (east) to Tiki‘oki.
4. Up-wind, windward.
Kua ‘akatere mai ‘aia i tōna vaka ki runga matangi ē te ‘openga kua ruru tōku vaka.
He sailed his canoe upwind of mine and so took my wind. Tē pā‘enua i runga, the eastern islands.
Āpōpō e ‘aere ei te pa‘ī ki te pā ‘enua i runga.
Tomorrow the ship will be going up to the islands of the east.