‘aka-2, morph. N.B. Many words containing the prefix ‘aka- can be used in more than one of the following ways. Words beginning with ‘aka-, which is an extremely productive affix, are entered in alphabetical position in the body of the dictionary. (cf. ‘a-8 which is nearly synonymous with ‘aka in sense 3 below, and tā-7.)

1. Causative or ergative, to cause or make something happen. Used typically to convert intransitive into transitive sentences. The subject of the intransitive sentence becomes the object of the transitive sentence, thus allowing the agent (the performer of the action) to be introduced as the subject of the ‘aka- sentence. Compare

Kua kī te pi‘a.
The box is full:

Kua ‘akakī ‘aia i te pi‘a.
He filled the box;

Kua ma‘ora te kie.
The sail unfurled:

Kua ‘akama‘ora rāua i te kie.
They unfurled the sail;

to go free:

to set free;

to go back:

to send back;

to be at an end:

to bring to an end.

2. Used to convert the subject of an underlying transitive sentence into a secondary agent or instrument (marked by the prep. ki), thus allowing a primary agent to be introduced as the subject of the ‘aka- sentence.

Kua kakati te puakaoa i te tamaiti.
The dog bit the child;

Kua ‘akakakati te va‘ine i te puakaoa ki te tamaiti.
The woman made the dog bite the child;

Kua ‘ongi au i te tiare.
I sniffed the flower;

kua ‘aka‘ongi te va‘ine i te tiare kiāku,
the woman got me to sniff the flower.

3. Used before a few noun stems. Atua, God; ‘akaatua, to deify, make a god of; ‘enemi, enemy;

to alienate, make an enemy of.

4. Inchoative: to become, to start to happen. Used before intransitive verbs which denote states or conditions, it indicates the coming about of that state or condition; before verbs which denote actions, it indicates the commencing or performing of that action. Kua anu te vai, the water was cold;

Kua ‘akaanu te vai.
The water went cold;

Kua para te vī.
The mangoes are ripe;

Kua ‘akapara te vī.
The mangoes have begun to ripen;

to be yellow;

to turn yellow;

to be ill;

to become ill;

to be lame, to limp;

to go lame, to start to limp;

to be quick;

to make haste.

5. Approximative: rather, somewhat, -ish, approaching a given state.

‘E pēni matie,
a green paint;

‘e pēni ‘akamatie,
a greenish paint.

6. Simulative, to make sbdy out to be, to call sbdy something; to pretend to be. Kua ‘akava-‘ine ‘aia iā Tere. He called Tere effeminate (made Tere out to be like a woman);

Kua ‘akamaki ‘aia iāia.
He made out to be ill.

7. Used to express collateral relationships. Tua‘ine, (a man’s) sister;

Ka ‘akatua‘ine au iāia.
She is my cousin (I make her like a sister).
[Pn. *faka.]

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