Another meaning is “sayings”. Numerous toto’u (sayings) [New Zealand Māori whakataukï], identifying the connectedness of particular mountains, rivers or lakes, tribes and people, are constantly invoked to reaffirm ‘anau tangata or ‘uānga tangata between people and their lands.


The word ‘itoro which is sometimes used instead of ‘ai tupuna is a coined word which shades it with a post LMS descriptive bias.

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